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Daily वे॑द Quote #12 द॑स्यवेवृ॑क 10/22/2022 (Sat) 03:33:18 ID:713492 No. 2124
इ॑न्द्रं मित्रं॑ • व॑रुणमग्नि॑माहुः। अ॑थो दिव्यः॑ • स॑ सुपर्णो॑ गरु॑त्मान्। ए॑कं स॑द्वि॑प्रा • बहुधा॑ वदन्ति। अग्निं॑ यमं॑ • मातरि॑श्वानमाहुः॥ —ऋग्वेद॑ 1.164.46 . (The सं॑हिता has a deficient syllable with वदन्त्यग्निं॑.) . Translation: "They say इ॑न्द्र, मित्र॑, व॑रुण, अग्नि॑. Also, He is Heavenly well-winged गरु॑त्मन्. What is one, the inspired call in many ways. They say अग्नि॑, यम॑, मातरि॑श्वन्." . Word-by-word: इ॑न्द्रम् < इ॑न्द्र, मित्र॑म् < मित्र॑, व॑रुणम् < व॑रुण, अग्नि॑म् < अग्नि॑, आहुस् < अह् "say", अ॑थ उ "also", दिव्य॑स् < दिव्य॑ "Heavenly", स॑स् < स॑ "he", सु < सु॑ "good", पर्ण॑स् < पर्ण॑ "wing", गरु॑त्मान् < गरु॑त्मन्, ए॑कम् < ए॑क "one", स॑त् < अस् "be", वि॑प्रास् < वि॑प्र "inspired", बहुधा॑ "manifold", वदन्ति < वद् "speak", अग्नि॑म् < अग्नि॑, यम॑म् < यम॑, मातरि॑श्वानम् < मातरि॑श्वन्, आहुस् < अह् "say". . Meter: त्रिष्टु॑भ् . Interpretation: The Vedic religion is not monotheistic, as there is no one God who is worshiped: we worship manifold (बहुधा॑) Gods with different personalities, who sometimes have violent conflicts with each other, and are sometimes morally imperfect beings (by Their own standards, not ours). Nor were there any sects of the Vedic religion that uniquely worshiped one God at the expense of others. All of the most basic Vedic rituals that must be practiced by every आ॑र्य according to every शा॑खा, down to the simplest अग्निहोत्र॑, involve oblations to multiple Gods at the same time. . Monotheism, as practiced by Arya Samaj for example, is totally divorced from the actual Vedic religion. . Who then is this "one" mentioned in the verse? It is a what, not a who, as evidenced by the Sanskrit grammar itself: while the देव॑s always take a masculine gender (or the देवी॑s a feminine), this one essence common to all the देव॑s is only ever spoken of in the neuter gender, स॑त्. (If it were the masculine gender, it would be स॑न्तम्.) It is an inanimate entity, not a monotheistic God of whom the देव॑s are some sort of incarnations. . So all the देव॑s are forms of one being or essence (ए॑कं स॑त्), and many names for Them were revealed to the ऋ॑षिs (वि॑प्रs), but this being is not personal or comparable to—for example—YHWH or Allah.