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Daily वे॑द Quote #24: 2022 November 3 द॑स्यवेवृ॑क 11/04/2022 (Fri) 05:35:01 ID:054a59 No. 2200
न॑ स॑ स॑खा • यो॑ न॑ द॑दाति स॑ख्ये। सचाभु॑वे • स॑चमानाय पित्वः॑। अ॑पास्मात्प्रे॑यान् • न॑ त॑दो॑को अस्ति। पृण॑न्तमन्य॑म् • अ॑रणं चिदिच्छेत्॥ —ऋग्वेद॑ 10.117.4 . (Note that the last syllable of ओ॑को is to be scanned लघु॑/short, as if ओ॑कव्.) . Translation: "No friend is he who doesn't give food and drink to a friend, to a loyal companion. Let him proceed from him. No home is that. Let him seek another generous one, even a stranger." . Word-by-word: न॑ "not", स॑स् < स॑ "he", स॑खा < स॑खि "friend" , य॑स् < य॑ "who", न॑ "not", द॑दाति < दा "give", स॑ख्ये < स॑खि "friend" , सचाभु॑वे < सचाभू॑ "companion", स॑चमानाय < स॑चमान < सच् "be attached", पित्व॑स् < पितु॑ "food and drink", अ॑प "from", अस्मात् < अय॑म् "he", प्र॑ इयात् < प्र॑ इ "proceed", न॑ "not", त॑द् "it", ओ॑कस् "home", अस्ति < अस् "be", पृण॑न्तम् < पृण॑न् < पॄ "be generous", अन्य॑म् < अन्य॑ "other", अ॑रणम् < अ॑रण "stranger", चिद् "even", इच्छेत् < इष् "seek". . Meter: त्रिष्टु॑भ् . Context: This hymn isn't dedicated to a specific God, and in fact is remarkable in not even mentioning the name of a God once; rather, it's a hymn in praise of generosity. . This verse is a good embodiment of the spirit of the entire hymn. The selfish, miserly person cannot be called a friend or a companion; even a generous stranger is more of an ally. In the modern era the word "friend" is used very loosely, even for someone you just met, but friendship was taken very seriously in old Aryan society, and carried its own set of entitlements and responsibilities; hospitality and charity are essential Aryan values. Obviously, someone who refuses to help you in a time of need is no friend at all. . Interesting Vedic grammar: Notice that अस्मात् is unaccented here (rather than अस्मा॑त्). In general, the declensions of अय॑म् that start with अ- can be either accented or accentless, without any specific pattern or way to predict an accent.