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Daily वे॑द Quote #33: 2022 November 12 द॑स्यवेवृ॑क 11/11/2022 (Fri) 18:14:47 ID:300b07 No. 2231
त॑स्मादिमा॑ वि॑शः क्षत्रि॑याय बलिं॑ हरन्ति। य॑दुपभृ॑ति गृह्णा॑ति त॑स्मादु क्षत्रि॑यस्यैव॑ व॑शे सति॑ वै॑श्यं पश॑व उ॑प तिष्ठन्ते। अ॑थ य॑त्त॑ज्जुह्वै॑व॑ समानी॑य जुहो॑ति त॑स्माद्य॑दोत॑ क्षत्रि॑यः काम॑यते॑ऽथाह वै॑श्य म॑यि य॑त्ते परो॑ नि॑हितं त॑दा॑ हरे॑ति। तं॑ जिना॑ति त्वद्य॑था त्वत्काम॑यते त॑था सचत एते॑नो ह त॑द्वीर्ये᳚ण। —शतपथब्रा॑ह्मण 1.3.2.15b . Translation: "Hence these वै॑श्यs (commoners) offer tribute to the क्षत्रि॑य (ruler). With what he takes in the vessel, the वै॑श्य, being in the power of the क्षत्रि॑य, gains cattle. And when he sacrifices, having poured together (the butter) with the the ladle, then the क्षत्रि॑य, whenever he wants, says: 'O वै॑श्य! Bring me here what you have set away!' He both subdues him and obtains whatever he wants by this very power." . Word-by-word: त॑स्माद् < त॑द् "that", इमा॑स् < इय॑म् "this", वि॑शस् < वि॑श् = वै॑श्य "commoner", क्षत्रि॑याय < क्षत्रि॑य "ruler", बलि॑म् < बलि॑ "tribute", हरन्ति < हृ "offer", य॑द् "when", उपभृ॑ति < उपभृ॑त् "vessel", गृह्णा॑ति < ग्रभ् "take", त॑स्माद् < त॑द् "that", उ "indeed", क्षत्रि॑यस्य < क्षत्रि॑य "ruler", एव॑ "thus", व॑शे < व॑श "power", सति॑ < स॑न् < अ॑स् "be", वै॑श्यम् < वै॑श्य "commoner", पश॑वस् < पशु॑ "animal", उ॑प तिष्ठन्ते < उ॑प स्था "belong to", अ॑थ "then", य॑द् त॑द् "whatever", जुह्वा॑ < जुहू॑ "ladle", एव॑ "thus", समानी॑य < स॑म् आ॑ नी "pour together", जुहो॑ति < हु "sacrifice", त॑स्माद् < त॑द् "that", य॑दा "when", उत॑ "and", क्षत्रि॑यस् < क्षत्रि॑य "ruler", काम॑यते < कम् "want", अ॑थ "then", आह < अह् "say", वै॑श्य "commoner", म॑यि < अह॑म् "I", य॑द् "what", ते < त्व॑म् "you", पर॑स् "away", नि॑हितम् < नि॑हित < नि॑ धा "set down", त॑द् "that", आ॑ हर < आ॑ हृ "bring here", इ॑ति, त॑म् < स॑ "he", जिना॑ति < ज्या "subdue", त्वद् < त्व "both", य॑था "how", त्वद् < त्व "both", काम॑यते < कम् "want", त॑था "so", सचते < सच् "obtain", एते॑नो < एत॑द् "this", ह "indeed", त॑द् "that", वीर्ये᳚ण < वीर्य᳚ "power". . छ॑न्दस्/Meter: None (the शतपथब्रा॑ह्मण is prose) . Interpretation: This chapter describes the दर्शपूर्णमास॑ (full- and new-moon ritual), hence the reference to a sacrificial vessel and the pouring together of butter with a sacrificial ladle. But what is particularly interesting about this passage is that it is one (of several) describing the profoundly unequal (and some would say "oppressive") power-dynamic between the rulers of आ॑र्य society and the commoners. There was no pretense of egalitarianism in the Vedic times: contrary to revisionist Hindu views, a birth-based caste system has existed since that era and is fundamental to the Vedic religion. The क्षत्रि॑यs, an exclusive group of élite nobility, ruled by their brute power (व॑श, वीर्य᳚) rather than through some sort of democratic process, and dominated ("subdued", ज्या) the civilian commoners whom they ruled, exacting tributes (बलि॑) from them and demanding wealth from them whenever they wanted. But this was not a "tyranny", insofar as the commoner benefited from submitting to the rule of the क्षत्रि॑य, for cattle would come into his possession (पश॑व उ॑प तिष्ठन्ते). . Interesting Vedic grammar: Notice the repetition of त्वद् (unaccented), equivalent to "both…and…" in English. Thus: तं॑ जिना॑ति त्वद् "he both subdues him", य॑था त्वत्काम॑यते "and whatever he wants…".

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